Wash rice with cold water two or three times.
In a pot over medium heat, combine rice and 8 cups of water. Bring to a boil, stirring occasionally.
Add ginger and salt. Lower heat, cover, and cook for about 25 to 30 minutes or until rice grains are softened and have burst, with congee thickened as desired.
Drain tofu from packing liquid. Wrap tofu block in paper towels and weigh down with a small plate or cup for about 15 to 20 minutes to rid of excess moisture. Cut into 1-inch cubes.
In a cast-iron skillet over high heat, heat oil until very hot but not smoking. Add tofu and deep-fry, turning as necessary, until golden brown and crisp. Do not overcrowd the pan and cook tofu in batches as needed.
With a slotted spoon, remove tofu from the skillet and drain on paper towels.
In a pan over medium heat, combine vinegar, soy sauce, sugar, salt, and pepper. Bring to a boil, stirring occasionally, until sugar and salt are dissolved.
Add shallots and chili peppers and cook for about 30 to 40 seconds.
Add tofu cubes. Cook, tossing gently to combine, for about 30 seconds or just until heated through and coated with sauce. Remove from heat.
Ladle congee into serving bowls and garnish with green onions and fried garlic bits. Serve with a side of tofu.